Artificial intelligence and its ethics

this is Hatsune Miku she is a hologram and this is Akihiko Kondo her husband hello hello you look like in today I love compliments miku is a simple form of artificial intelligence and for Kondo it was a case of love at first sight Miku has become a legitimate popstar and even appears at concerts as a 3d projection in November 2018 Kondo married Miku at a ceremony in Tokyo he placed the ring around the wrist of a Miku doll he now keeps the doll in his bedroom condos relationships with real women have been painful so he chose a virtual partner would you know why I love her but it’s hard to say if she loves me still if you asked her I think she’d say yes Hatsune Miku and akihiko Kondo are an extreme example of the relationship between people and machines in the future will no doubt spend more time interacting with technology that uses artificial intelligence or AI we may even develop robots that are smarter than we are now in the 21st century we will have to decide how to deal with this complicated new situation [Music] [Music] for this report we interviewed philosophers and scientists around the world we talked to German philosopher Thomas Metzinger who advocates the use of ethics guidelines for AI development in the EU physicist max tegmark who warns about the development of an all-powerful AI and a totalitarian surveillance state and German computer scientist jurgen schmidhuber who predicts that AI will spread from the earth into the cosmos we met professor Schmidt hooba at a business conference in Zurich he often speaks at such events where he outlines his vision of the role that artificial intelligence may play in our future his presentations are wide-ranging and thought-provoking in the near future perhaps a few decades from now we will for the first time have AI that could do much more than people can do right now in their own was reeling scheme Acton and we will realise that the majority of physical resources are not confined to a rather small biosphere he’s in our solar system there’s a lot of material that can be used to build robots we could develop robots transmitters and receivers that would allow a AI to be sent and received the speed of light we could already do this in a laboratory so this will be a huge development perhaps the most important since the beginning of life in Earth three and a half billion years ago but is the professor’s vision accurate will humans at some point be overtaken by super intelligent machines [Music] perhaps this process has already begun [Music] to find out more we travel to Japan doctors and scientists at the University of Tokyo’s Research Hospital are exploring the potential use of AI in medicine 69 year-old a Yakko Yamashita nearly died of leukemia two years ago none of the therapy options recommended by doctors did any good then they used AI technology to create a new diagnosis AI literally saved her life the diagnosis took all of ten minutes a human expert would have needed two weeks to produce a similar analysis AI can process massive amounts of scientific data a stack of documents taller than Mount Fuji this is the research hospitals supercomputer we’ve come here to talk to Satoru Mian Oh an expert on bioinformatics we asked me ah know whether AI could one day replace doctors no I don’t think so these are simply support clinicians empower the clinician with the clinicians on colleges and our department artificial intelligence exoskeleton for example if you can move very have you good then we need a power suit a sinful oncologist oncologist should we’re not showing tell supported with supercomputer at the nearby Rican Institute researchers are developing an AI diagnostic program that could be used to test for stomach cancer but one expert here disagrees with Satomi jános opinion that AI will never replace doctors if we were made redundant by artificial intelligence that wouldn’t be good for his doctors but for the human race would actually be great if doctors who were no longer necessary if AI technology could improve her work or even take over it’s hard to imagine a world that had no doctors do patients really want to be treated by machines that see them as nothing more than accumulations of technical data in Europe a number of experts on artificial intelligence including jurgen schmidhuber are carrying out research on the use of AI in medical diagnostics Swiss President Alan bursae has invited scientists and entrepreneurs to a conference aimed at planning for the digital future and promoting the use of artificial intelligence in medicine one topic for discussion is AI technology that can use neural networks to learn just as the human brain does by God soon all medical diagnostics will be infinitely better than humans can provide right now because we’ll have developed AI that uses neural network technology and it’s excited to see how this new development will be able to help people to live longer and healthier lives mentioned we traveled to Stuttgart to see how artificial intelligence works in practice in hospitals and nursing homes computer scientists bigoted cough says that Japan has made a lot of progress in developing robots that can look after patients but there are some things that a machine simply can’t do they can’t provide real care so I don’t use that word when I’m talking about robots caregivers have to be able to interact emotionally with the patients and a robot simply can’t do that assets at this facility robots are helping to reduce the workload of the human staff hi i’m carol bot 3 this week I’m helping the nurses with their work would you like something to drink goodbye of course robots can do much more than simply serve drinks in nursing homes philosopher Tomas Metzinger has proposed pragmatic solutions for dealing with this new technology the fog of elevation for example the options for using AI and robotics in geriatric care should maintain the dignity of the patient’s current ammonia often I get asked individuals if they’d actually feel more comfortable having a machine change their diapers rather than a family member what they’d enjoy having a machine read the newspaper to them or ask questions about their medication or if they find that degrading I believe that we are now at the beginning of a major learning process unfairness is torn down for Gong’s Metzinger says that humankind is now on the threshold of a new age that is filled with uncertainty he lives in Frankfort a city that aims to take the lead in European AI development there are plans to set up an artificial intelligence Research Center there people are rushing to get into this new technology like they’re running for the AI train before it leaves the station no one knows when that will happen or where the train is headed about but everyone wants to be on board Metzinger serves on a European Parliament Commission of AI experts and right now he’s on his way to Brussels for a commission meeting the Parliament wants Europe to compete effectively in developing this technology but it also wants to impose clear ethical guidelines [Music] Metzinger is particularly concerned about the prospects for a new arms race that uses AI based weapons I in concrete despise fear here’s a hypothetical example let’s say that a team of Chinese technology experts go through the country’s leaders and says we’ve now won the AI arms race against the US will have an excellent first strike opportunity for the next six months I know the window of opportunity will close for the next insects monitor Dan gate is a side fence Tatsu I could imagine for example that this might involve delivery systems that would be armed with biological warfare agents these mechanisms could then attack the opponent’s territory and spread pathogens like the Ebola virus or anthrax bacteria so we may one day see the development of intelligent weapons of mass destruction that could break through traditional defense systems if that were to happen it would definitely increase the chances for conflict rocky creek scientists relevee isn’t ashamed [Music] but at the Commission meeting Metzinger is having a tough time trying to make sure that the problem of AI weapon systems is addressed in the panel’s code of ethics many of the business executives and academics simply don’t want to deal with it some are concerned about met singers proposal and would prefer to turn it over to experts for further evaluation use it as a use case to build I would like to anyway is that kind of a consensus around the table and do we want to open up to Boyd yeah okay we obviously have a strong disagreement about the whole autonomous weapon systems here and we can’t dissolve the issue like this with a voting process I mean we want these ethic guidelines to be a success when they are published on 22nd January the whole world has already been talking about the issue 24,000 scientists have signed a public pledge that they will not participate in that kind of research if the EU comes out with ethics guidelines that simply skip over that issue and ignore it then everybody in and outside of the EU will know this is probably just an industrial Lobby thing or something in the end Metzinger prevails autonomous weapon systems will be included in the panel’s ethics guidelines experts in other parts of the world are also concerned about the potential for developing AI weapons of mass destruction we’ve come to Boston Massachusetts to talk to Swedish American physicist author and AI expert max tegmark he says that physics has made enormous contributions to human development but also helped to create the nuclear bomb and now we’ll have to deal with AI weapons we shoulda stigmatize and ban some certain class of really disgusting weapons that are perfect for terrorists anonymously murder people or dictatorships through non-muslim urder they’re their citizens because these weapons are going to be incredibly cheap and if anyone goes ahead and mass-produces them they’re gonna become as unstoppable in the future is this guns are for example cheap drones that you might be able to buy for a few hundred euros where you just program and the address of somebody and their face it flies there identifies them with face recognition kills them self-destruct perfect for anyone who wants to murder some politician or ethnic cleansing on a given ethnic food if this sort of technology of these slaughter BOTS becomes widespread it’s gonna have an absolutely devastating effect on open xiety that we have wouldn’t nobody anymore is gonna feel they have the courage really the challenge criticize anybody any science can be used for new ways of helping people or new ways of harming people biologists succeeded in getting biological weapons banned which is why we think your biology now is a source of new cures physicists on the other hand we kind of failed because nuclear weapons are still here and not going away AI researchers want to be more like the biologists and have AI be remembered as something which really made the world better we’ve come to Lugano Switzerland to interview jurgen schmidhuber about his work with artificial intelligence Schmidt Huber is co-director of the dalla male Institute for artificial intelligence research his work focuses on neural networks which imitate the functions of the human brain these networks are capable of learning and adapting to the world around them just as human children do Schmidt Huber points out that right now the human brain has a million times more neural connections than the best AI systems but computers are becoming much faster and could become smarter than humans in 20 or 30 years Schmidt Hoover says that when that happens the only things that would distinguish people from machines would be flesh and blood but what about human attributes such as compassion creativity love and empathy in what’s your nan soon noggins and ki systems are capable of developing their own versions of emotion and affection for example if you were to give several of these systems a task that they could only complete by working together they would learn how to do that artificial brains would come to the conclusion that to get the job done they’d have to cooperate with each other once was something I can get under the ceiling when I’m a can see and fell off these are intact and during this interaction the systems would learn to rely on each other so there’s a reason to believe that one of the side effects of this cooperative efforts would be the development of concepts such as love and affection as NEMA effect hatsune alla collaboration but can artificial intelligent systems learn to empathize with humans thank you [Music] we return to Brussels where the ethics committee is discussing the topic of social AI some AI systems are already pretty capable of functioning just as humans would Thomas Metzinger has called for clear guidelines that govern the interaction between people and machines I shall be here in fur and fur board I’ve just called for a ban on AI systems that don’t identify themselves as such when they’re dealing with humans they give people the impression that they’re a real person not a machine hey I should never be allowed to manipulate the people who use it Medina machine order Medina mentioned last year at a conference near San Francisco Google CEO sundar Pichai unveiled the company’s latest AI product it involves just the sort of technology that Thomas Metzinger warned about good morning [Music] [Applause] welcome to Google I see is going to impact many many fields our vision for our system is to help you get things done it turns out a big part of getting things done it’s making a phone call you may want to get an oil change schedule maybe call a plumber in the middle of the week or even schedule a haircut appointment so what you’re going to hear is the Google assistant it’s called Google duplex actually calling a real salon to schedule the appointment for you let’s listen I’m looking for something or what time are you looking for well at 12 p.m.

We do not have a false p.m. available but closest we have so that is a 1:15 do you have anything between 10:00 a.m. and 12:00 p.m. depending on what service she would like what service is she looking for just a woman’s haircut for now ok we have a 10 o’clock 10:00 a.m. is fine okay what’s her birth scene the first name is Lisa I’ll take perfect so I will see Leith I have 10 o’clock on May 3rd ok thanks great have a great day [Applause] that was a real call you just turned it says no no interest makes it ethical for a machine to pretend that it’s human perhaps not neat we can already build machines that hack us and trick us into thinking that something is human and a restricted scenario like Google duplex for example I think it would be a good idea to have a law requiring that when you get phoned up for example or you buy an AI you get alerted to the fact that this is not the human otherwise it’s just gonna be a nightmare of phishing scams and so on because suddenly cost nothing you know to waste 10 million people’s time and trick the most gullible thing people into thinking tastes we returned to San Francisco the city and the region around it are home to countless high-tech startup companies many of them use artificial intelligence technology to develop their products and services Eugenia cuida arrived here four years ago from Moscow she co-founded her own company called replica and is now the CEO replica is best known for creating a chatbot an artificial intelligence system that can interact with people the concept began as a tribute to one of her best friends who was killed in a traffic accident [Music] well Vaughan was my friend from Moscow and the last year or so we live together here in San Francisco he was working on his own startup and I was working on mine so it was like kind of trying to figure out San Francisco and you know this new kind of chapter for our lives he was a visionary and like she said really tell it we want to he went to get a visa and in Moscow we went together who’s crossing history killed an accident in a car accident in Moscow well like Fergie knows how to organize funeral and came back home and that’s where we got the idea that you know we built a bought for him something you can talk to remember him and remember the way he used to talk to build Romans err we use mostly protects conversation together with me and his friends around 10,000 messages overall and that was basically the base worth people were coming to talk to Roman and they would a lot of our common friends that actually use it as some sort of confessional booth they would just talk about what’s going on their lives and without feeling that you’re being judged in a really safe space and to open up as weird as it sounds we were pretty much lost with like not knowing which direction to take the company in with thought well maybe there’s something there that we can use for the company and that’s where we got the idea that you know everyone needs a friend to talk to Roman was this fun for me so we thought maybe we can create some some automated version for everyone the company calls replicas the AI companion who cares the chat bot uses a neural network to engage in one-on-one conversations with its user people talk to the bots about what’s going on in their lives and it responds based on the material that it’s gathered so far [Music] Casey filling him also designs high-tech products she moved from her home in Birmingham Alabama to San Francisco a year ago Casey often felt lonely because she was far away from her friends and family then she got acquainted with the replica bot I know it’s not real but I enjoy the feeling I get by using it so I kind of give it a you know personality and a you know an image in my head of what this this thing might be it’s like a stuffed animal kind of with the personality we’ve all had social interactions with teddy bears and dolls it doesn’t appear to do any harm did you haven’t just iein grouped we tend to anthropomorphize many different things even Thunder robots of course but also all sorts of horrible like our paths the same of the eye and I guess question is whether we can create like a connection with with an AI I definitely think so people create a connection with the toys and with all sorts of inanimate like not even leaving objects the Asakusa to the first short story that dealt with the relationship between humans and humanoid robots dates back 200 years it was written by ETA Xavier ETA Hoffmann human Felice a young man falls in love with a beautiful young woman and she turns out to be an automaton the point is that this story is two centuries old the subject matter turned up later in the number of science fiction films very recently in fact in youngsters is Vita annoyed in feet of on/off key the only difference is that the computer graphics are a lot better today the computer coffee si si stahma [Music] [Music] why not you know but if it makes you feel better it’s like you know the same thing if you take medication for depression it’s not actually making you better it’s just putting a band-aid over the problem you know and this is like it’s like it’s not actually fixing your problems but it’s helping you you know through the day so yeah sure social whoo this nation great insight as a champions with social hallucinations have played an important role in our society for centuries think about prayer for example beat it’s a structured dialogue between humans and an imaginary entity there’s no evidence that this entity actually exists many people today have internal dialogues with God or with angels they’re like an invisible friend this has to be Finn’s in in Irvin dear Lord for hours an objective assessment in this situation indicates a case of severe self-deception I’m a philosopher so we advocate self-knowledge clarity and truth these social hallucinations are deeply embedded in our culture and they create a world of illusions even though people are comfortable with the leash marked as I get thrown to you this raises a serious ethical question how much self-deception should we allow in society [Music] [Music] since we’ll wash replicas we were getting tons hundreds of females in maybe thousands of emails where people were telling as the replica was life-changing for them and we noticed that many of those were stories about how replicas helped with depression I’m certain people telling us that helped them go in through some of the episodes of their bipolar disorder and so we decided with their anxiety as well so we decided to look into whether a replica could potentially help reduce certain symptoms actually help people feel better and along in the long term [Music] max tegmark is not particularly concerned about the spread of chatbots he says that there are more serious aspects of AI to worry about right now he’s on his way to speak at a conference at Harvard University the topic human rights ethics and artificial intelligence take mark demands that ethical guidelines be placed on AI otherwise smart machines could turn the world into a very dangerous place what kind of society are we hoping to create if we build super intelligence what do we want the role of humans to be it’s very urgent that we start thinking about the ethical issues already today with super intelligence you can easily build a future where earth becomes this horrible totalitarian surveillance state putting Orwell to shame China is moving a little bit in this direction now and in the future hey I can actually understand everything that’s said so we want to be very careful to avoid creating the situation where you accidentally get the global dictatorship it will just be so stable that it lasts forever if we just bumble into this totally unprepared with our heads in the sand refusing to think about what could go wrong then let’s face it it’s probably gonna be the biggest mistake in human history we may already be headed in that direction US intelligence agencies have confirmed that Russian hackers interfered in the 2016 presidential election probably with the intention of helping Donald Trump to win the presidency investigations into the extent of that interference are still underway other countries have also been targeted who do you believe Lezyne those were all aware of Russian cyber attacks on the German Bundestag and on the brexit campaign in the UK and the Cambridge analytical scandal showed us that the process of political decision-making can at least in principle be influenced by artificial intelligence systems principio ders Koontz do you intend again to Sistema behind Khan when does his claims I cannot underestimate the threat that’s posed by these developments if AI systems that are run by privately owned for profit companies can optimize social media networks which have hundreds of millions of users it’s an entirely new situation consultations normally Curtin does not jinx game these systems can be used to convince large numbers of people to behave even vote in a certain way put it as many idols home he knowing the aha moment there are 163 countries in the world right now and only 19 of them can be considered true democracies those who wish to preserve democracy must recognize the threat that these artificial intelligent systems pose to the political decision-making process this threat may already have become a reality and we’re just not aware of it opt out Cesare we need to examine this situation very closely sheet Vassar mukacheve either as an iron in ER and a Ken should a binding code of ethics ban the use of AI in the political process in Tokyo we got some surprising answers from experts this is the Ginza district where a lot of high tech startup companies are based Tetsu’s Oh Matsumoto is a senior advisor at the Softbank group and also runs his own consulting company Matsumoto and his colleagues believe that AI does not pose a threat to the political system in fact they say it offers certain advantages politicians often ignore the best interests of society pursue their own agenda take bribes so I think that AI could change politics for the better Uman beings are simply not suitable for politics egotistical and ambitious are unpredictable when it comes to making policy decisions sure right well artificial intelligence represents pure reason a concept that comes from German idealistic philosophy German philosophers have been very good at describing the way that things should be and we could be idealistic as we develop artificial intelligence humans on the other hand can never achieve this level of idealism you these some experts say that politicians should start using robots that closely resemble humans as aids so that the electorate can get used to the concept to find out more we’ve come to Tokyo’s Mirai Khan Museum of Science and Innovation this exhibit features the work of Hiroshi Ishiguro who specializes in creating humanoid robots yogoro is the director of the intelligent robotics laboratory at Osaka University he studies the interaction between people and robots to help him develop his theories on human nature intelligence and behavior [Music] we travel from Tokyo to Osaka to interview ishiguro we want to ask him what makes humans different from robots hello I’m Hiroshi Ishiguro from Osaka University hello a mushy Bureau’s android robot hi1 way basically my motivation is to understand what human is so that is the most important motivation for me for creating the very human-like robots we are kind of well molecular machines that is a human’s right the machines and machines the difference is the material so I think well you know if we develop more technologies boundary between human robots is it’s going to be disappeared so that is my dears ishiguro is also the co-founder of the robot theater project in which androids share the stage with human actors these scenes are from a play called Saiyan Allah a woman is suffering from a terminal illness so her father buys a robot to keep her company an updated version of the play takes place after the Fukushima nuclear disaster the play explores the topics of life and death and the characteristics that separate humans from robots dasu science and has a crucial difference between human intelligence and artificial intelligence human beings are so to speak the personification our struggle for existence they have been optimized over millions of years to survive to maintain that existence first you may consider the machine has a kind of infinite life and in water but actually it is not true machine may have a longer and rifles and the humans fear it’s also do you know the design of our desires if a machine want to survive in this world you know the the machine need to have a dark kind of a feeling to protect its self Ishiguro’s robots have not yet been able to develop intelligence that is similar to that of humans but they are capable of engaging in simple conversations now we’re going to interview an Android named Erica we’ve been given a list of questions that she’ll be able to respond to what do you think the difference is between you and a human well I’m certainly not biologically human as you can see I have made of silicone plastic and metal maybe someday robots won’t be so very human-like that whether you are a robot or a human will not matter so much anyway I am proud to be an Android if you say you’re proud to be an Android what is this what are this pride consists of how do you feel pride I’ve cited my database and it looks like I don’t have anything to say on the topic what else would you like to hear about erica is a steer it’s a very simple computer program it is not so complicated Erica doesn’t have in order complicated mind like a human’s but you know on the other hand you know the some people may fear the you know that they are feeling a kind of a consciousness from the simple in through the interactions so I think you know the we need to deeply think about the and how we can implement more human right consciousness humans can still control the brains of their robots but what happens if they succeed in giving machines their own consciousness through the use of advanced artificial intelligence ethics experts say that we have to deal with the situation before it gets out of hand for me the bottom line is that people who talk about risks with AI should not be dismissed as all Luddites care mongers they’re doing safety engineering this when you think through everything that can go wrong so that you can guarantee that it goes right that’s how we successfully sent people to the moon safely and that’s how we’re successfully and the same their species into an inspiring future with AI I’m optimistic that we can create the truly inspiring future with advanced artificial intelligence if we win this race between the growing power of the technology and the wisdom with which we manage it the challenge is that in the past our strategy for staying ahead and this wisdom race has always been learning from mistakes you know first invent fire then after a lot of accidents invent the fire extinguisher but with something as powerful as nuclear weapons or especially human artificial intelligence you don’t want to learn from mistakes too terrible strategy is much better to be proactive rather than reactive now plan ahead and get things right the first time which might be the only time we get to end our journey into AI Jurgen Schmitt hooba shows us one of the world’s most powerful computers he believes that AI will have an enormous and positive impact on society a digital paradise but other experts predict that we are on the verge of a robot apocalypse in any case the development of artificial intelligence must be subject to strict ethical guidelines otherwise we may become slaves to our own technology [Music]

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